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            英語資訊
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            美語訓練班 124課

            Source: 恒星英語學習網    2013-11-28  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  
            B: Welcome to American English Mosaic, I'm Mike Bond!

            A: And I'm Lin Yang.

            B: Wanna know the differences in business culture between American and Chinese companies? We will offer you some great tips on how to perform in an international business environment.

            A: 中國人到底有多要面子? 我們在下面的節目中為你介紹。

            B: And in words and idioms, we will learn what "slippery slope" and "small potatoes" mean!

            A: All coming up on this edition of American English Mosaic!

            B: Now let's go into our first segment, Learn a word!

            Learn A Word 1828 expired

            今天我們要學的詞是expired. Expired is spelled e-x-p-i-r-e-d, expired. Expired 形容詞,意思是過期的。He was pulled over by the police and got a ticket for  having an expired registration. 他開車時被警察攔下來,因為車子注冊已經過去,吃了一張罰單。Flushing expired medicines down the toilet is a source of pollution. 把過期藥品從馬桶里沖走,會對環境造成污染。A Chinese woman accused of defacing The Washington National Cathedral was traveling on an expired visa. 被控在美國華盛頓國家大教堂上胡亂涂抹,破壞建筑外觀的一名中國女子所持有美國入境簽證已經過期。好的,今天我們學習的詞是 expired, expired, expired...

            B: I always look at the expiration dates when I go grocery shopping. I guess that's a good habit.

            A: I think you should pay more attention to the calorie  chart instead!

            B: Very funny, 楊琳,very funny.

            A: I'm sorry! You know I'm kidding! It's just I've been eating a lot lately since the weather is getting colder, and I need to look at those numbers carefully!

            B: Actually I can see that...sounds like you are already on a slippery slope! (A: Hey!) Let's listen to today's words and idioms, slippery slope!

            Words and Idioms 871 slippery slope

            美國習慣用語第871講

            我最近收拾東西,翻出一張十年前的照片,當時我在一家進出口公司做市場開發,老板 Sue 是我遇到的最嚴厲的上司,開會遲到一分鐘都會挨罵,她的理論是,這次晚一分鐘,下次就會晚兩分鐘。今天我們要學的習慣用語恰恰跟她的信條相吻合,那就是:

            M: Slippery slope. Slippery is spelled s-l-i-p-p-e-r-y, and slope; s-l-o-p-e. Slippery-slope. Slippery 是打滑的意思;slope 是斜坡。不言而喻,A slippery slope 打滑的斜坡,意思是越來越糟。你現在一定明白了,為了我以前的老板 Sue 眼睛里揉不進一粒沙子。在她看來,遲到一次不糾正,Then you were on a SLIPPERY SLOPE. 以后就會越來越糟。在下面這個例子里,一個父親發現十幾歲的女兒在商店偷東西,我們一起聽聽這位父親的反應。

            M: "I realize when my 12 year-old took a bottle of perfume from a store without paying, she was shoplifting. But that doesn't mean she's heading down a SLIPPERY SLOPE towards a life of crime. She understands the seriousness of what she did. And she promises never to steal again."

            這位父親說:我知道,十二歲的女兒在商店里拿香水不交錢是偷東西,可這并不意味著她已經走上了一條越陷越深的犯罪道路。她已經明白了這件事情的嚴重性,而且保證以后再也不偷了。

            我同意這個父親的看法,只要讓孩子了解問題的嚴重性,以后不犯就好了。但是有些事情,則萬萬不能開先例。比如說,我家狗還小的時候,老公覺得它可愛,讓它進臥室更我們一起睡,我當時就警告他,We are on a slippery slope. 結果被我不幸言中,如今狗大了,可是再也趕不出去了。

            讓我們再來聽聽上面那段話。

            M: "I realize when my 12 year-old took a bottle of perfume from a store without paying, she was shoplifting. But that doesn't mean she's heading down a SLIPPERY SLOPE towards a life of crime. She understands the seriousness of what she did. And she promises never to steal again."

            在下面的例子里,一個小鎮居民在是否愿意在鎮子里興建大型游樂場的問題上存在嚴重分歧。讓我們聽聽下面的報道。

            M: "The citizens are divided over whether to allow an amusement park to be built in our historic town. Supporters argue that it will bring entertainment and a needed source of tax revenue. Critics say we'd be getting on a SLIPPERY SLOPE. Before long, they contend, we could expect more and more traffic problems, and undesirable development. As they see it, our community's quality of life would eventually be destroyed."

            這個人說:小鎮居民在是否應該在這個歷史性小鎮里興建游樂場的問題上存在意見分歧。支持者說,游樂場會給小鎮帶來娛樂活動和稅務收入。批判者說,我們會在這條路上越陷越深,用不了多久,交通堵塞和其它大家不愿看到的商業開發活動就會接踵而至。他們認為,我們社區的生活質量終將受到破壞。

            這倒讓我想起我的一個鄰居。他堅決主張公民有權擁有槍支,反對任何限制槍支的立法。在他眼里,It's a SLIPPERY SLOPE. 用不了多久,政府就會全面禁槍。好的,我們再來聽一下上面那個例句。

            M: "The citizens are divided over whether to allow an amusement park to be built in our historic town. Supporters argue that it will bring entertainment and a needed source of tax revenue. Critics say we'd be getting on a SLIPPERY SLOPE. Before long, they contend, we could expect more and more traffic problems, and undesirable development. As they see it, our community's quality of life would eventually be destroyed."

            好的,這次美國習慣用語就到此結束了。

            M: Until next time.

            M: This has been Words and Idioms.  

            A: Gosh, I hope the government shutdown get fixed soon, otherwise it's going to be a slippery slope...

            B: I know! The last government shutdown was in 1995 and it lasted for 21 days. That for sure hurt the economy enormously.

            A: I feel like this is bad for everyone in the U.S., and it's such a loss of face for the congress!

            B: Well, that's what happens when no one is willing to compromise!  Actually in today's business etiquette, we will discuss this exact topichow to save face!

            A: Ha, my favorite! Let's check it out!

            禮節美語 saving face/guanxi I

            Jerry 要去中國出差,找同事 Amy 請教。

            Jerry: Hey Amy...your family is from China, right?

            A:Yep. I was born and raised in Shanghai. Why do you ask?

            J: Well, I hope you don't mind...but I'm planning a business trip to China soon and I was wondering if you could give me some pointers.

            A: You mean like where to go for food or shopping?

            J: That would be good, too. But I'm actually hoping you might give me some insights into doing business in China.

            A: Ah...sure! I think I can help. Do you have a specific question?

            Jerry 準備去中國出差,希望Amy能給自己點建議 give me some pointers. pointer is spelled p-o-i-n-t-e-r, pointer 是指點,建議的意思。Amy 從小在上海長大,看來 Jerry 算是找對人了。Jerry 并不是想了解吃飯、購物的事,而是想知道在中國做生意的一些規矩。

            J: Well, for starters, what do they mean by "saving face?"

            A: "Saving face" is a catch-all term for the concept of honor. In China there is a protocol to everything and it should be followed, otherwise you and the other party might be embarrassed.

            J: So in short...saving face is about avoiding embarrassment?

            A: Exactly. Say you're late to a meeting. This would cause you to lose face.

            For starters, 首先,Jerry想知道什么是有面子,saving face. Amy 解釋說,saving face is a catch-all term for the concept of honor. 有面子包括了所有跟榮譽和顏面有關的問題。這里所說的 catch-all is spelled c-a-t-c-h, catch, a-l-l, all, catch-all 意思是全部包含、統統適用的。Amy 說,中國人干什么都講究規矩,protocol, p-r-o-t-o-c-o-l, protocol, 按規矩做事,大家都有面子,破壞了規矩,就會讓人 lose face 丟臉,比如說開會遲到。

            J: How can you go about regaining your "face", or your honor?

            A: It depends on how serious the offense was. If you were late, you can repeatedly apologize and the other person will probably forgive you.

            J: But I would need to apologize more times than I would if I was late here in America?

            A: Yes. Make many apologies. The person will probably say it's not a big deal, but in fact it could be a pretty big deal to them, so make sure to say sorry if you make a mistake.
             
            如何才能 regain face 挽回面子呢?Amy 說,這要看你錯誤的嚴重程度。It depends on how serious the offense was. 如果開會遲到,你最好使勁道歉,請求對方原諒。對方可能嘴上會說,it's not a big deal. 沒什么大不了的,但事實上,他們心里可能非常在意,所以一定要再三道歉。

            A: Jerry要到中國去出差,向同事Amy詢問中國的企業文化, ask for some pointers, 尋求一些建議。Amy說,中國人很看重saving face, 有面子,所以要按規矩辦事 follow protocols。如果做錯了什么事,make many apologies, 使勁道歉。

            B: That's what was frustrating for me when I was in China. Most of the time people don't mean what they say! They might tell me that it's not a big deal, but actually it can be a pretty big deal to them!

            A: Yep, you got to learn how to pick up subtleties for you to do well in a Chinese cultural environment. Let's keep listening to Amy and see what pointers she has for us!

            禮節美語 saving face/guanxi II

            Jerry 要去中國出差,找同事 Amy 請教。

            Jerry: My book on Chinese culture says that the idea of shame is a big part of how society works.

            A: That's true. Chinese culture places more value on the group and less on the individual.

            J: Pretty much the opposite of the U.S. huh?

            A: Yeah. In China your actions at work reflect on your employer and your daily conduct reflects on your family.

            J: So if you shame yourself you're also shaming your employer?

            A: In some cases, yes.

            集體的概念在中國文化里很重要。Amy 說,Chinese culture places more value on the group and less on the individual. 相對個人而言,中國文化更重視集體,the opposite of the U.S. 跟美國正相反。你工作時的表現會影響到你公司的形象,你的日常舉止行為能反映出你的家庭教養,to reflect on someone 是影響到某人形象的意思。

            A: Chinese culture doesn't encourage showboating or aggressive self-promotion.

            J: Ha! In America, we promote ourselves all the time! It's the only way to get noticed.

            A: But in Chinese society, you might have a better chance at getting a promotion at work by being a real team player. The best advice I can give to a foreigner who wants to do business in China is this: be sincere, try not to offend and tone down the volume.

            中國文化不鼓勵 showboat 自我吹噓,也不鼓勵 self-promotion 自我宣傳。在美國,只有自我宣傳才能得到上司的注意,然而在中國,最好的途徑是 be a real team player. 做團隊的一員。Amy 說,她給外國人最好的建議是:be sincere 真誠;try not to offend 不要冒犯別人;以及 tone down the volume. 調低音量。

            J: What do you mean when you say, "turn down the volume?"

            S: Well, for one thing: don't talk so loud! Americans are loud and although China is a very noisy country, people don't like it when you draw attention to yourself.

            J: Would that include how I dress as well?

            A: Certainly. Try to blend in as much as possible. The locals will appreciate the effort.

            J: Wow, Amy....I'm so glad I talked with you! You've been a great source of information.

            A: Sure. Let me know if you need more specifics.  
             
            Amy 建議 Jerry 講話不要太大聲,因為 People don't like it when you draw attention to yourself. 大家不喜歡那些故意吸引別人注意的人。另外,穿著打扮也不要太醒目,Try to blend in as much as possible 意思是融入周圍的環境,也就是說,Jerry 應該盡量設法跟周圍的人打成一片。

            A: Amy說,Chinese culture places more value on the group and less on the individual. 中國文化的核心就是集體的概念比個人概念更重要。中國公司里不鼓勵self-promotion 自我宣傳,最好的方法就是be a real team player,  做團隊的一員。她給Jerry的建議是: be sincere 真誠;try not to offend 不要冒犯別人;以及 tone down the volume. 調低音量。

            B: Yeah, I found that all to be true when I was in China. Its more about succeeding as a group than finding personal success.

            A: That's true. Alright, 面子的話題就到這里吧! 我們接著進行我們的課程,來聽下面的learn a word!

            Learn A Word 1830 outright

            今天我們要學的詞是outright. Outright is spelled o-u-t-r-i-g-h-t, outright. Outright 形容詞,意思是全面的,徹底的。An outright lie 徹頭徹尾的謊言。The company has no other choice than an outright sale. 這家公司已經別無選擇,只能準備把公司賣掉。在美國,The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the amount of nicotine in cigarettes, but it can't ban it outright. 食品和藥物管理局有權規定香煙里尼古丁含量的多少,但是不能徹底禁止香煙里尼古丁成分的存在。好的,今天我們學習的詞是 outright, outright, outright...
             
            A: Speaking of cigarettes, I heard DC is coming out with a law that will ban smoking in public places and within 20 feet of a building, but it can't ban it outright.

            B: I kinda wish it could be a outright ban, I hate the smell of cigarettes!

            A:I know, but compare to the old days when smoking was not banned at all, I enjoy bars and restaurants a lot more today!

            B: Ah, you are so content with what you have! It might be small potatoes for you, but it's a big deal for me!

            A: 知足長樂嘛! 好啦,你剛才提到了一個詞兒,small potatoes, let's listen to today's words and idioms and check it out!

            Words and Idioms 872 SMALL POTATOES

            美國習慣用語第 872 講

            我的一個朋友要買房,我周末陪她一起去看,我看著最滿意的一棟房子有三個臥室,兩個衛生間,地下室全都鋪了硬木地板,新裝修的廚房,還有一個一英畝大的花園?晌夷莻朋友居然因為不喜歡廚房的櫥柜,就一口回絕了。這倒讓我想起一個習慣用語,可以跟大家分享,那就是:

            M: Small potatoes. Potatoes is spelled p-o-t-a-t-o-e-s. Small-potatoes.

            SMALL POTATO 小土豆,說一個人或是一件事是 SMALL POTATO 意思就是無足輕重,微不足道。就好比我那個朋友,買房子不看房子的格局和設計,反而對廚房的抽屜,櫥柜挑三揀四。我認為,其實這些東西都是 SMALL POTATOES 根本不重要。

            不過話說回來,有時候,對一個人微不足道的事情對另外一個來說卻是舉足輕重的大事。為了說明這一點,讓我們一起來聽下面這個經濟記者的報道。

            M: "How much would you guess the United States annually spends on its agriculture and forests? $10 million? $1 billion? Actually, last year, it was about $20 billion. That might seem like a huge amount of money. But compared to the more than $610 billion dollars on both defense and Social Security, it's really SMALL POTATOES."

            這位記者說:你猜猜,美國每年在農業和林業上的開支是多少?一千萬?十億?告訴你吧,去年美國在農林業上的支出有大約兩百億美元。這聽上去好象是很大的一筆錢,但如果跟花在國防和社會保障上的6100億比,那可真是微不足道了。

            說起來不好意思,我上周末在家還因為請客吃飯買什么牌子的葡萄酒跟先生斗嘴。轉念一想,跟那些失去工作,或是失去房子的人相比,我生活中那些問題全都是 SMALL POTATOES. 好的,讓我們再來聽聽上面那段話。

            M: "How much would you guess the United States annually spends on its agriculture and forests? $10 million? $1 billion? Actually, last year, it was about $20 billion. That might seem like a huge amount of money. But compared to the more than $610 billion dollars on both defense and Social Security, it's really SMALL POTATOES."

            在下面這個例子里,年輕畫家 Dorothy 的作品最近引起了很大反響。讓我們一起聽聽她哥哥是怎么說的。

            M: "Dorothy's getting lots of attention for her paintings. Her recent exhibit made headlines in the local paper. And she just received the top prize at our town's art festival. Some people dismiss her work as SMALL POTATOES. Then again, perhaps one day it may hang in important museums."

            她哥哥說:Dorothy 的畫引起了很多人的注意,她最近的畫展登上了本地報紙頭條,她還贏得了鎮里藝術節的頭等獎。有些人說她的作品微不足道,可誰知道呢,她的作品沒準哪天還能出現在大博物館的墻上呢!

            如果Dorothy真有天才,運氣又好的話,沒準真能出名!這倒讓我想起,幾個星期前,韓國歌星 Rain 來華盛頓為自己的新電影做宣傳,我打了幾通電話,沒想到 Rain 的經紀人居然同意讓他跟我做專訪。沒想到,我這種 SMALL POTATO 居然能請到 RAIN 這樣的大牌明星。好的,我們再來聽一下上面那個例句。

            M: "Dorothy's getting lots of attention for her paintings. Her recent exhibit made headlines in the local paper. And she just received the top prize at our town's art festival. Some people dismiss her work as SMALL POTATOES. Then again, perhaps one day it may hang in important museums."

            SMALL POTATO 這種說法最早可以追溯到1836年。好的,這次美國習慣用語就到此結束了。

            M: Until next time.

            下次節目再見。

            M: This has been Words and Idioms.

            A: So are you finally coming to grips with the fact that you are small potatoes around here Mike?

            B: Sure! At least a potato is useful, unlike some people I know......

            A: 好了同學們,這次節目時間就到這里了。

            B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!  

            A: See you next time!
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