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            英語資訊
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            2018年研究生入學統一考試英語(一)真題及答案解析

            Source: 恒星英語學習網    2017-12-24  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  

            2018年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試
            英語(一)試題

            Section Ⅰ Use of English
            Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

            Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition __1__ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your __2__, in the wrong place often carries a high __3__.

            __4__, why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. __5__ people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that __6__ pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to __7__ with one another. Scientists have found that exposure __8__ this hormone puts us in a trusting __9__: In a Swiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their __10__ who inhaled something else.

            __11__ for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may __12__ us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate __13__ a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each __14__ to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, "What's in here?" before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, "Wow!" Each subject was then invited to look __15__. Half of them found a toy; the other half __16__ the container was empty-and realized the tester had __17__ them.

            Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were __18__ to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. __19__, only five of the 30 children paired with the "__20__" tester participated in a follow-up activity.
            1. A. on B. like C. for D. from
            2. A. faith B. concern C. attention D. interest
            3. A. benefit B. debt C. hope D. price
            4. A. Therefore B. Then C. Instead D. Again
            5. A. Until B. Unless C. Although D. When
            6. A. selects B. produces C. applies D. maintains
            7. A. consult B. compete C. connect D. compare
            8. A. at B. by C. of D. to
            9. A. context B. mood C. period D. circle
            10. A. counterparts B. substitutes C. colleagues D. supporters
            11. A. Funny B. Lucky C. Odd D. Ironic
            12. A. monitor B. protect C. surprise D. delight
            13. A. between B. within C. toward D. over
            14. A. transferred B. added C. introduced D. entrusted
            15. A. out B. back C. around D. inside
            16. A. discovered B. proved C. insisted D. remembered
            17. A. betrayed B. wronged C. fooled D. mocked
            18. A. forced B. willing C. hesitant D. entitled
            19. A. In contrast B. As a result C. On the whole D. For instance
            20. A. inflexible B. incapable C. unreliable D. unsuitable

            解析:
            1.【答案】[C] for
            【解析】考察介詞的用法。It’s a necessary condition ____ many worthwhile things (信任是一個必要條件_____許多重要事情) 此處應該是說,信任對許多重要事情來說是一個必要條件。C選項for(對...來說)符合語義,故為正確答案; A選項on(關于)語義不恰當,B選項like(像...),D選項from(來自于),排除。

            2.【答案】[A] faith
            【解析】考察語義邏輯和詞義辨析。第一段為總分結構,主要講述主題句:trust is a tricky business (信任是一個奇怪的東西)。后面是對trust的兩方面說明:On the one hand, ……(一方面,信任對許多重要事情來說是必要條件),這句話在說信任的好處。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high ____. (另一方面,把...放在錯誤的地方往往會帶來巨大...),另一方面依舊在解釋主題詞“trust”,只有A選項faith(信任、忠誠)與trust屬于近義詞復現,故正確答案。

            3.【答案】[D] price
            【解析】考察詞義辨析。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high____. (另一方面,把...放在錯誤的地方往往會帶來巨大...),顯然這句話在說信任不當的壞處,故A選項benefit和C選項hope排除,而B選項debt(債務)語義不當,故正確答案為[D] price(代價)。

            4.【答案】[B] Then
            【解析】考察邏輯關系。上段講述的是信任的好處和信任不當的弊端。第二段段首提出問題:“_____我們為什么要信任”。只有B選項then(那么)能形成順暢的語義和邏輯關系。A選項therefore(因此)表示結果,C選項instead(但是、然而)表示轉折, D選項again(再次)表示強調,故排除。

            5.【答案】[D] When
            【解析】考察邏輯關系。______人們信任一個人或一個組織機構,他們的大腦會釋放催產素。只有D選項when(當..時候)符合邏輯要求。A選項until(直到...)表時間,B選項unless(如果不)表條件,C選項although(盡管)表讓步,均不符合語義邏輯,故排除。

            6.【答案】[B] produce
            【解析】動詞辨析。上文指出:When people place their trust in…their brains release oxytocin, a hormone…….上文指出當人們產生信任感,大腦就會釋放一種荷爾蒙,這個荷爾蒙能____令人愉悅的情緒,引發……沖動。 B. produce(產生)符合語義。A selects選擇 C applies應用 D. maintains維持,根據語義可排除。

            7.【答案】[C] connect
            【解析】考察信息前后照應。上文講到這種荷爾蒙能夠激發一種群居本能,the herding instinct 因此選擇C. connect 聯系 。A. consult咨詢 B. compete競爭 D. compare 比較

            8.【答案】[D] to
            【解析】考察名詞介詞搭配問題。exposure to為常用搭配,表示“顯露,接觸”的意思,因此選擇to。

            9.【答案】[B] mood
            【解析】考察信息前后照應。上文提到身體會產生荷爾蒙,帶來一種愉悅的情緒。實驗中exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting …,因此,根據上下文,試驗中,處于這種荷爾蒙環境中,會給人帶來一種信任的情緒;語氣;心境;。因此選擇 mood。

            10.【答案】[A] counterparts
            【解析】考察信息照應。上文指出,In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects ,可推知本句再講與另外一組受試者比較。故選擇A。counterparts. 相對物,相對應的人。

            11.【答案】[B] Lucky
            【解析】考察語義邏輯關系。因為這個句子當中有個詞also,說明前后文情感一致。說我們有這兩種天賦,對大家來說都是好事,所以需要選擇一個正向的情感色彩。只能選擇lucky。A選項funny 有趣的是,C選項odd 奇怪的是,D選項ironic 諷刺的是。

            12.【答案】[B] protect
            【解析】考察前后邏輯和動詞辨析。這個句子當中有個詞also,說明前文和后文情感是并列平行關系,所以此處只能選擇protect 保護我們,符合文意。A. monitor 監控, D. delight 使高興, C 選項 surprise 使震驚。

            13.【答案】[A] between
            【解析】考察固定搭配。differentiate between A and B. “4個月大的孩子可以區分出一個可信的人和一個不誠實的人”。

            14.【答案】[C] introduced
            【解析】此處考察成分搭配。原文表達: Sixty toddlers were each______ to an adult tester holding a plastic container. 只有C選項be introduced to sb表示“引見給某人,互相認識”,符合文意。B選項added 添加;A選項transferred轉移;D選項 entrusted 委托。

            15.【答案】[D] inside
            【解析】考察介詞搭配及詞義復現。原文表達:“What’s in here?” before looking into the container…… Each subject was then invited to _________. 只有B選項inside 才能和前文所表達的in here和looking into一致。

            16.【答案】[A] discovered
            【解析】動詞辨析。根據原文Half of them found a toy; the other half ____the container was empty…前半句再講一半的受測者在盒子里面找到了玩具,后半句肯定是再說另半會怎么樣,所以16題填入的應該是found的同義詞,發現的含義,故A為正確選項。B.proved 證明 C. insisted 堅持 D. remembered 記住。

            17.【答案】[C] fooled
             【解析】語義辨析。前面提到另一半人發現盒子是空的,并且意識到測試者_____了他們,A fooled(戲弄)為正確選項。Betrayed 背叛,wronged 冤枉, mock嘲弄,均不符合。

            18.【答案】[B] willing
            【解析】 語義辨析。Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were _____ to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership.在所有沒有被戲弄過的孩子里面,大多數的孩子_____與測試者合作……。故選擇B. willing,愿意。Forced 被迫,hesitant 猶豫,entitled 有資格,均不符合語義。

            19.【答案】[A] In contrast
            【解析】考察句間的邏輯關系。____, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity. 通過該句中的only僅僅,可以看出與上文的 the majority of 形成鮮明的對比,空格處應該是表示轉折,故D. in contrast為正確選項。As a result結果,on the whole 整體上,for instance例如。

            20.【答案】[C] unreliable
            【解析】詞義辨析。在接下來的活動中30個孩子中只有5個孩子與______的測試者能合作,根據前后對比關系,此處應該是不信任,所以 tester的修飾詞應該為C,unreliable不可靠的,不可信任的,故C為正確選項。Inflexible 頑固的 incapable無能的 unsuitable 不合適的。


            Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
            Part A
            Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

            Text 1
            Among the annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably go unmentioned in the next presidential campaign: What happens when the robots come for their jobs?

            Don't dismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middle class disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day care don't appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-trucking, financial advice, software engineering—have aroused their interest, or soon will. The rich own the robots, so they will be fine.

            This isn't to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval has benefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn't go so well for Luddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized looms, but it eventually raised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewise, automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by driving down prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. But in the medium term, middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.

            The first step, as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second Machine Age, should be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums—from grammar school to college—should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better job of fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots. Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extra training and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skills will be able to do so without going into debt.

            The challenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to revive its fading business dynamism: Starting new companies must be made easier. In previous eras of drastic technological change, entrepreneurs smoothed the transition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of 3D printers and virtual reality haven't been invented yet. The U.S. needs the new companies that will invent them.

            Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wage labor need to be cut, and wage subsidies such as the earned income tax credit should be expanded: This would boost incomes, encourage work, reward companies for job creation, and reduce inequality.

            Technology will improve society in ways big and small over the next few years, yet this will be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended by automation. Destroying the machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to help workers adapt will be indispensable.

            21. Who will be most threatened by automation?
            A. Leading politicians.
            B. Low-wage laborers.
            C. Robot owners.
            D. Middle-class workers.

            22. Which of the following best represent the author's view?
            A. Worries about automation are in fact groundless.
            B. Optimists' opinions on new tech find little support.
            C. Issues arising from automation need to be tackled.
            D. Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided.

            23. Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on ________.
            A. creative potential
            B. job-hunting skills
            C. individual needs
            D. cooperative spirit

            24. The author suggests that tax policies be aimed at ________.
            A. encouraging the development of automation
            B. increasing the return on capital investment
            C. easing the hostility between rich and poor
            D. preventing the income gap from widening

            25. In this text, the author presents a problem with ________.
            A. opposing views on it
            B. possible solutions to it
            C. its alarming impacts
            D. its major variations

            解析:
            21. 選D。根據第二段的About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middle class disproportionately squeezed可知,中產階級工人受到的威脅最大。

            22. 選D。 根據第三段Likewise, automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by driving down prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. automation和工業革命一樣最初可能會出現問題,但是最終這些問題都會被避免,從而給社會帶來好處。

            23. 選A。 根據第四段Curriculums —from grammar school to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication.
            可知選A。

            24. 選D. 根據第六段Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought.可知是為了防止收入差距擴大。

            25. 選B. 文中作者提出了automation的問題,然后主要圍繞具體的解決方式展開。

            Text 2
            A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americans disapprove of President Trump's use of Twitter. The implication is that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other source, Not a president's social media platform.

            Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016 presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

            Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use "distributed trust" to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. "Many young people assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and actively seeking out opposing viewpoints," the survey concluded.

            Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that young people's reliance on social media led to greater political engagement.

            Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is "reader error," more so than made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem of fake news lies in "misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news" via social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be the heart of the issue. "This indicates there is a real personal responsibility in counteracting this problem," says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna Group.

            So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills—and in their choices on when to share on social media.

            26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts on ________.
            A. the justification of the news-filtering practice
            B. people's preference for social media platforms
            C. the administration’s ability to handle information
            D. social media was a reliable source of news

            27. The phrase "beer up" (Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to ________.
            A. sharpen
            B. define
            C. boast
            D. share

            28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people ________.
            A. tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace
            B. verify news by referring to diverse resources
            C. have a strong sense of responsibility
            D. like to exchange views on "distributed trust"

            29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem is ________.
            A. readers outdated values
            B. journalists' biased reporting
            C. readers' misinterpretation
            D. journalists' made-up stories

            30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
            A. A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online
            B. A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend
            C. The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media
            D. The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests

            解析:
            26. 選D。根據文章第一段中的A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other source 和第二段的Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines可知選D。

            27. 選A。首先是定位到第二段中Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills.隨著對所有媒體的不信任增加,人們可能開始提高媒體閱讀能力。故選A。

            28. 選B。定位到文章第三段的A Knight Foundation focus-group survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust” to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias.可知選B。

            29. 選C。定位到文章第五段A survey by Barna research group found the top reason given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via social media.可知選C。

            30. 選A。根據文章第二段的一、二兩句Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills.可知選A。

            Text 3
            On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona's immigration law Monday—a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration's effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states.

            In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona's controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to "establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization" and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.

            Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court's liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately "occupied the field", and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal's privileged powers.

            However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That's because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.

            Two of the three objecting Justice—Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas—agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts.

            The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as "a shocking assertion of federal executive power". The White House argued that Arizona's laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.

            Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn't want to carry out Congress's immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.

            31. What is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind?
            A. It caused conflicts among tech giants.
            B. It failed to pay due attention to patient's rights.
            C. It fell short of the latter's expectations.
            D. It put both sides into a dangerous situation.

            32. The NHS trust responded to Denham's verdict with ______.
            A. empty promises
            B. tough resistance
            C. necessary adjustments
            D. sincere apologies

            33. The author argues in Paragraph 2 that ________.
            A. privacy protection must be secured at all costs
            B. leaking patients' data is worse than selling it
            C. making profits from patients' data is illegal
            D. the value of data comes from the processing of it

            34. According to the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this deal is ________.
            A. the vicious rivalry among big pharmas
            B. the ineffective enforcement of privacy law
            C. the uncontrolled use of new software
            D. the monopoly of big data by tech giants

            35. The author's attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is ______.
            A. ambiguous
            B. cautious
            C. appreciative
            D. contemptuous

            解析:
            31. 選B。根據題干中的“agreement between the NHS and DeepMind“定位到原文第一段最后一句”the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind……on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy”. 從Which引導的定語從句可以看出agreement基本沒有考慮病人的權利和隱私。Take little account of =fail to pay attention to.

            32. 選C。題干問The NHS trust如何回應Denham’s verdict(裁決)。第一段末尾說了裁決,回應定位到第二段開頭:the NHS has mended its way. (mend one’s way改過自新)。后面也說了進一步調整安排further arrangements,確保獲得相關病人的同意,清楚不必要數據。

            33. 選D。根據題干定位到第2段看作者的觀點。最后一句but轉折后才是真正的重點信息。it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data value. 這是個強調句型it is……that……,僅僅擁有這些數據是沒用的,是數據的處理和聚合才讓數據有了價值。

            34. 選D。題干要求根據最后一段,這場交易引起的真正憂慮是……?定位到the real worry 后面的句子:It is not enough……. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed from using public resources. 真正的問題在于這些數據最終會歸屬于一個利用公眾資源發展起來的私人壟斷公司。

            35. 選 B。觀點態度題。作者對人工智能應用在醫療上的態度可以從文末最后幾句總結評論看出。
            “we are still at the beginning of ……. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham’s report is a welcome start.” (我們正處于初級階段,為了避免出現數據壟斷統治,需要長期斗爭,德納姆女士的報告是個可喜的開端。)可知作者態度是cautious謹慎的。A. ambiguous 模棱兩可的C. appreciative 贊賞的D. contemptuous輕蔑的,均不符合。

            Text 4
            The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) continues to bleed red ink. It reported a net loss of $5.6 billion for fiscal 2016, the 10th straight year its expenses have exceeded revenue. Meanwhile, it has more than $120 billion in unfunded liabilities, mostly for employee health and retirement costs. There are many bankruptcies. Fundamentally, the USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological change that has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter product, first-class mail, and a regulatory structure that denies management the flexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality.

            And interest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exert self-interested pressure on the USPS's ultimate overseer-Congress-insisting that whatever else happens to the Postal Service, aspects of the status quo they depend on get protected. This is why repeated attempts at reform legislation have failed in recent years, leaving the Postal Service unable to pay its bills except by deferring vital modernization.

            Now comes word that everyone involved—Democrats, Republicans, the Postal Service, the unions and the system's heaviest users—has finally agreed on a plan to fix the system. Legislation is moving through the House that would save USPS an estimated $28.6 billion over five years, which could help pay for new vehicles, among other survival measures. Most of the money would come from a penny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees into Medicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus addressing a long-standing complaint by the USPS and its union.

            If it clears the House, this measure would still have to get through the Senate – where someone is bound to point out that it amounts to the bare, bare minimum necessary to keep the Postal Service afloat, not comprehensive reform. There's no change to collective bargaining at the USPS, a major omission considering that personnel accounts for 80 percent of the agency's costs. Also missing is any discussion of eliminating Saturday letter delivery. That common-sense change enjoys wide public support and would save the USPS $2 billion per year. But postal special-interest groups seem to have killed it, at least in the House. The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are getting frightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. It is not, however, a sign that they're getting serious about transforming the postal system for the 21st century.

            36. The financial problem with the USPS is caused partly by ________.
            A. its unbalanced budget
            B. its rigid management
            C. the cost for technical upgrading
            D. the withdrawal of bank support

            37. According to Paragraph 2, the USPS fails to modernize itself due to ________.
            A. the interference from interest groups
            B. the inadequate funding from Congress
            C. the shrinking demand for postal service
            D. the incompetence of postal unions

            38. The long-standing complaint by the USPS and its unions can be addressed by ________.
            A. removing its burden of retiree health care
            B. making more investment in new vehicles
            C. adopting a new rate-increase mechanism
            D. attracting more first-class mail users

            39. In the last paragraph, the author seems to view legislators with ______.
            A. respect
            B. tolerance
            C. discontent
            D. gratitude

            40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
            A. The USPS Starts to Miss Its Good Old Days
            B. The Postal Service: Keep Away from My Cheese
            C. The USPS: Chronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure
            D. The Postal Service Needs More than a Band-Aid

            解析:
            36. 選B。根據Fundamentally, the USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological change that has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter product, first-class mail, and a regulatory structure that denies management the flexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality可知。

            37. 選A。根據第二段第一句:And interest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exert self-interested pressure on the USPS’s ultimate overseer-Congress-insisting that whatever else happens to the Postal Service, aspects of the status quo they depend on get protected.可知。

            38. 選A.根據第三段:Most of the money would come from a penny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees into Medicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus addressing a long-standing complaint by the USPS and its union可知。

            39. 選C。根據最后一段中:The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are getting frightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about transforming the postal system for the 21st century.可知作者認為他們并沒有認真對待。所以此處作者態度為否定。

            40. 選D。 文章的第一和第二段指出USPS出現了問題,并分析分析,第三段給出了解決方法,第四段是作者對這個方法的態度是否定的。所以選擇D。

            Part B
            Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. (10 points)

            [A] In December of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

            [B] Completed in 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, with its elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room, and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciled wall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary.

            [C] The State, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.

            [D] Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the EEOB's granite walls. Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, and 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

            [E] The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in both the national history and the architectural heritage of the United States. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and Navy Departments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country.

            [F] Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finished, it was the largest office building in Washington, with nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.

            [G] The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires (including those set by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866, the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building.

             

            41. E
            42. G
            43. A
            44. B
            45. D

            解析:
            41. [E]。E段首先介紹EEOB的全稱,對全文進行概述提出話題,可選為41題答案。
            42. [G]。C選項最后一句談到了many historic events(建筑內呈現了歷史事件),而G選項第一句提到了the history of the EEOB…(EEOB的歷史。。。),意思一致,承上啟下,故42題答案選G。
            43. [A]。確定G后,根據G選項最后一句,。。。the demolition of the State Department Building(談到拆除the State Department Building), 而A選項中談到了建立一個new State Department Building,前后意思承接,故43題答案選A。
            44. [B]。根據給定的F段,首句提到了。。。as the building slowly rose wing by wing(該建筑分步展開)。 而B選項第一句談到了。。。south wing was the first to be occupied(首先坐落在南翼),然后在B選項最后一句又談到。。。moved into the east wing(之后又移至東翼)。 先在F段總起,再在B段中分說,前后對應,故44題答案選B。
            45. [D]。B段結尾處談到了where elaborate wall…decorated the office of the Secretary(這些精美的墻裝飾了秘書處的辦公室),而D段第一句提到了that have taken place within the EEOB’s granite walls(歷史事件在這些EEOB的墻上呈現), the wall原詞復現,兩句話意思一致,故45題答案選D。


            Part C
            Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

            Shakespeare's lifetime was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama. (46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England, as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new or old, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school, organizations of amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainment; and (47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

            When Shakespeare was twelve years old the first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at literary distinction were written for schools or court, or for the choir boys of St. Paul's and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays in public as well as at court. (48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood. By the time that Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greece had made comedies that were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage—where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouse established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

            The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief period, we may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds of plays, and of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

            46. 參考譯文:在他出生之前,歐洲正在經歷宗教戲劇的衰退,古典悲劇和喜劇催生了新的戲劇形式。
            47. 參考譯文:任何一個上過文法學校的男孩都知道戲劇是一種文學形式。文學曾經給希臘和羅馬帶來榮耀,或許還可以給英格蘭帶來榮耀。
            48. 參考譯文:但是,專業公司的永久劇場生意蒸蒸日上,懷揣文學野心的大學生也很快投靠到這些劇院,以寫劇為生。
            49. 參考譯文:本土的文學戲劇就此誕生,并與大眾劇院結緣,少說也引生了一些了不起的傳統。
            50. 參考譯文:要想認識當時戲劇活動的盛況,我們還需意識到大批劇本已然遺失,而且也許沒有哪位知名劇作家的作品全然遺留至今。

            Section Ⅲ Writing
            Part A

            51. Directions:
            Write an email to all international experts on campus, inviting them to attend the graduation ceremony. In your email, you should include the time, place and other relevant information about the ceremony.

            You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
            Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)

            參考作文
            Dear professors,
            I wonder if there is the possibility for you to come to my graduation at our university’s gymnasium at 7:00 pm next Saturday night.
            It would be my pleasure to share the important moments with you. During the experiment, it is your generous help and constant encouragement that contributes to the success of the experiment. As I have been elected as the students’ representative, I will deliver a speech at the ceremony. I do wish you to be there to witness my growth and allow me to express my sincerest gratitude to you in person.
            I would like you to attend, so please let me know your decision.
            Yours faithfully,
            Li Ming

            Part B
            52. Directions:
            Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should
            1) Describe the picture briefly,
            2) Interpret the meaning, and
            3) Give your answer neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

            參考作文
            As is vividly depicted in the picture, sitting in front of a computer is a university student pondering over which kind of course he should choose: the courses creative, informative and difficult to pass or the easy and less-work-amount ones.

            The implication underlying this picture is rather thought-provoking: his confusion in fact mirrors hundreds of thousands of students’ dilemmas. Nowadays, many students in universities or colleges are not sure of what they want and where they will go in the future. As a result, they easily become anxious and helpless when choices confront them.

            What should we do? In my opinion, the most important thing is having a goal. It is crucial for us college students to understand what we actually want and what kind of men we want to be. And then follow your heart. If you have the ambition to be an expert in some fields, you will naturally choose the courses that are creative, informative and progressive rather than courses oriented to students who want just to dip into it for fun or credit. Otherwise, if your focus is on honing your work skills or just feeding yourselves early and supporting your family, you can just choose whichever subject you would like to successfully graduate and then hunt for jobs or establish your own career.


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