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初一至初三全程英語知識點總結及練習之八

Source: [db:來源]  [db:作者]  2022-07-19  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  
初三年級(下)【知識梳理】 I. 重點短語1. beg1 one's pardon2. multiply2 …by…3. slow down4. wear out 5. try on 6. make a decision, 7. a place of interest 8. make a mistake 9. drop off 10. think about11. make up one's mind,12. at all, 13. at least14. by the time 15. carry on 16. never mind 17. from now on18. come down 19. hands up 20. before long,21. no one,22. not…any longerII. 重要句型1. be busy doing sth.2. prefer to do sth.3. regard... as...4. be pleased with sth./sb.5. be angry with sb.III. 交際用語1. ---How much does… cost …?2. ---It can cost as little as … yuan and as much as … yuan.3. ---It costs ….4. ---It's worth ….5. ---I don't agree with ….6. ---I wasn't sure whether….7. ---I wonder if ….8. ---What size …? 9. ---Have you got any other colour / size / kind? 10. ---Have you got anything cheaper? 11. ---How much are they?12. ---How much does it cost? 13. ---How much is it? 14. ---That's a bit expensive. 15. ---Even though they're a little expensive, I'll take them. 16. ---I'll think about …. 17. ---I don't think I'll take ….18. ---I like ….19. ---I don't really like ….20. ---Can I help you, girl? 21. ---Would you like me to look in the back?22. ---We can find ….23. ---Do you like being3 …?24. ---Can I ask you some questions? 25. ---Sure. 26. ---It was great. 27. ---Wow! 28. ---Yeah!29. ---Oh dear!30. ---Hands up! 31. ---I’ll shoot anyone who moves. 32. ---There’s no need to thank me. 33. ---Can you remember anything else about him? 34. ---Come down, Polly!35. ---There is a little traffic accident.36. ---There's a big traffic jam.37. ---Well, I'm sure he'll be here before long.38. ---I'm beginning to get angry with him!39.---Yes, we can't wait any longer. Let's go without him.40. ---That's terrible! 41. ---That's a really bad excuse!IV. 重要語法1. 過去將來時 2. 過去完成時3. 動詞不定式4. 定語從句【名師講解】1. think/ think/about/ think of(1) think 單獨使用時表示"思考", 接that 賓語從句時意為"認為","覺得"。 I am thinking5 how to work out the problem. I think she is a good student. 當賓語從句含有否定概念時,通常形式上否定think ,但意義上卻是否定賓語從句。I don't think he can come.I don't think it will be windy.(2)think about 可接一個名詞,動詞-ing 形式或由疑問詞引導的不定式或賓語從句,意思是"考慮……"。 I have thought about it for a long time. Please think about how to tell her the bad news. (3)think of 表示"認為", 一般用于疑問句中,與what 連用。 What do you think of the TV play? = How do you like the TV play?2. big/ large/ great上述形容詞都表示"大",但側重點及程度不同。 (1) big指具體事物的大小,強調比正常形體的標準大,既可用在普通場合, 也可用在正式場合。它可用來指人的身材高大或"長大了",還可表示"偉大","重要"之意。如: Can you lift up this big stone?On the last day I made a big decision.(2) large特別強調遠遠超過標準的大,指體積、面積、容積、數量之大。如:A whale is a large animal.A large crowd collected at the gate of the theatre.(3) great除了表示數量體積之大外,又指抽象的程度,意味著偉大性,重要性, 優越性;常用于抽象或無形的東西;用于有形的東西時,常帶有"偉大","大得令人吃驚"等意思,含有一定的感情色彩。如:China is a great country with a long history. He was one of the greatest scientists. 3. cost/ take/ spend/ pay (1) cost表示"花錢",花費,付出(只能用于錢、精力、生命等;主語必須是物。) The book cost me five yuan. (2) take的主語是動詞不定式, 通常用it做形式主語。It took me five yuan to buy the book.. (3) spend,在主動語句中主語是人I spent five yuan on (for) the book.或I spent five yuan (in) buying the book. (4) pay的主語是人。I paid five yuan for the book. 4. expensive/ high/ cheap/ low 這四個詞在談論到價格的高低時,要注意使用。expensive與high涉及到價格"高",而cheap 與low涉及到價格"低"。 (1) expensive昂貴的,花錢多的。這個單詞若談到"價格高,貨貴"時,其主語不能是價格,必須是貨物、物品本身。如: This watch is expensive. 這只表很貴。 These glass-products are not expensive. 這些玻璃制品不是很值錢。注意:cheap表示"價廉","便宜的",其主語也不能是價格,必須是物品本身。如:The cheap table was bought from him. 這張便宜的桌子是他賣給我們的。This cloth6 doll is very cheap. 這只布娃娃很便宜。(2)high在表示價格時,含義是"高",low在表示價格時,含義是"低",這兩個詞不能用于物品本身,只能用在價格上。如:The price of this watch is very high. 這只表的價格太高了。The price of this book is not low for me. 這本書的價格對我來說是不低。下面我們試看幾個句子的正誤對照:The price of this computer is expensive.(宜改為:This computer is expensive. 或The price of this computer is high. )The price of this pen is not cheap for him to buy.(宜改為:This pen is not cheap for him to buy. 或 The price of this pen is not low for him. )5. alone/ lonely lonely 與alone的意思比較接近,但在使用時有所區別:(1)lonely用作形容詞,意思是"孤單的;寂寞的"?芍感撵`上的寂寞,也可指偏僻的地點。在句中既可作表語,也可作定語。(2)alone 可作形容詞和副詞,意思是"單獨;獨自",不指心理上寂寞的感覺。She was taken to a lonely island, lived alone, but she never felt lonely.她被帶到一個荒島上,自己居住,但她從不感到寂寞。6. before long/ long before(1)before long 作“不久以后”講,切不要按字面譯為“長時間以前”或“好久以前”。如:We hope to finish our experiment before long. 我們希望不久(以后)就把實驗做完。(2)long before 作"很久以前"講。原意為"……以前很久",故也可譯為"老早"。long before 跟before long 不同,前者在其后面可以接名詞或一個從句;當上下文明確時,名詞或從句還可以省略。Before long 則沒有上述搭配用法。 They began the test yesterday, but we had made experiment long before. 我們昨天開始做實驗,但我們在那以前很久就已經做準備了。7. as/ when/ while(1)as 是連詞,意思是"當……的時候,一面……一面",(強調同時,一般連續時間不長),如:As we were talking about Titanic7, our teacher came in. 正當我們談論"泰坦尼克號"這部電影時,教師進來了。The students sing as they go along. 學生們邊走邊唱。(2)When和as一樣都是連詞,注意它們的不同。如when"當……的時候"(一般表示動作緊接著發生);"那時"(等立連詞,前有逗號分開)I stayed till sunset8, when it began to rain. 我一直呆到太陽下山,那時天開始下雨了。(3)while是"當……時候;和……同時"(強調同時發生,一般連續時間較長)While I was watching TV, he was reading9. 當我在看電視的時候,他正在看書。While there is life, there is hope. 有生命就有希望。 8. beat/win/ hit (1)beat 是動詞,意思是"連續地打; 打敗; 敲打"。beat后可接人或隊名。意思是"擊敗對手。"如:I can beat you at swimming. (2)win意思是"贏得某個項目",后面常接"match, game"。如:He won a game. 他勝一局。We won a match. 我們比賽得勝。(3)hit意思是"擊中"(有時可表示"打一下")。如:The mother hit her child out of anger10. 媽媽生氣,打了她孩子一下。9. keep doing/keep on doing(1)keep doing側重表示"持續不停地做某事"或"持續某種狀態"。如: The girl kept crying all the time. 那個女孩一直在哭。 The baby kept sleeping about four hours. 這個嬰兒連續睡了大約四個小時。(2)keep on doing 表示"總不斷做某事",不表示靜止狀態。不能與sitting, sleeping, lying, standing這類詞連用。如:It kept on raining for seven days. Don't keep on asking such silly questions. 10. get/ turn/ become這三個詞都可作系動詞用,表示狀態的變化,后跟表語,但三個詞的用法稍有不同。get強調情感、氣候和環境的變化;turn強調色彩的變化;而become則強調職務、職稱等的變化。如: The days are getting shorter and shorter in winter.冬天的白天越來越短。She couldn't answer the question and her face turned red.她回答不出問題,臉紅了。When did you become a teacher? - Ten years ago.你什么時候當的老師?十年前。11. steal / rob從意思上講steal表示偷竊的意思。而rob表示搶劫的意思;從搭配上來講,steal sth from sb/sth ;而rob則用rob sb/sth of sth; 例如:He stole money from the rich to give it to the poor.They robbed12 the bank of one million dollars.12. see/look/watch/notice在英語中,see,look,watch,notice都有“看”的意思,要注意他們的區別。see意為“看到”,表示視覺器官有意識或無意識地看到物體,強調“看到”的結果。look意為“看”,表示有意識地觀看,強調“看”的動作。watch意為“觀看,注視”,指以較大的注意力觀看。notice意為“看到,注意到”,指有意識的注意,含有從不注意到注意的變化的意義。例如:What can you see in the picture?在圖畫中你能看到什么?Look! How happily they are playing!看!他們玩得多高興!He’s watched TV for over two hours.他看了兩個多小時的電視。He noticed a purse lying on the road.他注意到地上有個錢包。13. Shoot/ shoot atshoot是及物動詞,意思是“射中,射死”,賓語多為人或動物等。而shoot at是一個動詞詞組,意為“向……射擊”,至于射中或射死與否不得而知。如:The man shot13 five birds in the forest.那個人在森林里射死(中)了五只鳥。The hunter14 shot at the bear.獵人朝熊射擊了。They shot at the she-wolf, but didn't shoot her.他們向那只母狼射擊,但是沒有射中/死。14. escape/ run away(1)escape作“逃跑”、“逃脫”或“逃避”講時,往往會有成功之意。如:The old man escaped15 death.那個老人死里逃生。The thief escaped from prison16.那個小偷越獄了。 (2)run away作“逃跑”、“跑走”講時,往往強調動作。如:Don't let him run away. 別讓他跑了。口語中escape和run away可以互用。15. so that..../ so... that....(1) so that....為了,以便 。引導一個目的狀語從句,從句中往往有情態動詞。也可引導一個結果狀語從句。如:I left at 5:00 so that I could catch the early bus.Speak loudly, so that they can hear what you say. He didn't study English so that he lost a chance to work in a foreign company.(2) so... that....既可引導一個結果狀語從句,也可引導一個目的狀語從句。如:The classroom was so noisy that I could hardly study.I got up so early in the morning that I could catch the train.【考點掃描】中考考點在本單元主要集中在:1. 過去將來時; 2. 過去完成時;3. 動詞不定式;4. 定語從句;5. 本單元學過的詞匯、短語和句型;6. 本單元學過的交際用語?荚囆问娇梢允菃雾椞羁、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子!局锌挤独1. (2004年濟寧市中考試題) He wanted to know ______________. A. whether he speaks at the meeting B. when the meeting would startB. what he’s going to do at the meeting D. where would the meeting be held【解析】答案:B。該題考查的是賓語從句的語序和時態。因為主句的時態是一般過去時,所以從句應用過去將來時,這就排除了A和B。賓語從句的時態應該是陳述句的語序,所以只有B是對的。2. (2004年煙臺市中考試題) ---Why didn’t you go to the movie yesterday? ---Because I ___________ it before.A. had watched B. have seen C. have watched D. had seen【解析】答案:D。該題考查的是動詞的搭配以及現在完成時和過去完成時的用法區別?措娪傲晳T商用see a movie, 又因為說的昨天以前發生的事情,應該用過去完成時。只有D正確。3. (2004年重慶市中考試題) ---Did you win the football game? ---Bad luck. Our team __________ in the final one.A. won B. beat C. was won D. was beaten【解析】答案:D。該題考查的是動詞搭配和動詞的語態。動詞win通常和比賽一類的詞連用,不與人或隊連用,因此可以排除A和C。beat是個及物動詞,既然我們的運氣不好,就是輸了,應該用被動語態。4. (2004年廣州市中考試題) ---Who is the man ________ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It’s Mr Baker17, our maths teacher.A. he B. that C. whom D. which【解析】答案:B。該題考查的是引導定語從句關系代詞的選擇。由于先行詞是人,可以排除A和D。而該詞在定語從句中作主語,只有B合適。 【滿分演練】一. 單項選擇1. Though he is ____________ seventy years old, he takes exercise every day. A.past B.above C.on D.over 2. The sun rises ___________ and goes down ____________. A.in the east, in the west B.in the west, in the east C.to the east, to the west D.from the east, from the west 3. Which would you like, Madam, tea or coffee? ____________, thanks. I’d like a glass of water, please. A.Either B.Both C.Neither D.OK 4. One of the boys is ________, all the other boys are _________. A.English , China B.an English, Chinese C.England , China D.English, Chinese 5. ---How soon will you finish the building? --- __________________________. A.In two months B.Two months C.About two months D.After two months 6. They did ______________ their father told them. A.like B.as C.about D.with 7. The fish smells ______________. You mustn’t eat it. A.nicely B.heavily C.terrible D.terribly 8. Either you or he _______________ the team. A.is in B.are on C.is on D.are in 9. He was made _____________ thirteen hours a day by his boss18. A.to work B.work C.is on D.are in 10. ___________ you work, ___________ you will do. A.Harder, better B.The harder, the worse C.Hardest, best D.The harder, the better 11. Mrs Hu asked Liu Fang19 and __________ to take part in the English meeting. A.I B.my C.me D.mine 12. Tell the students _____________ their English books. A.to take B.to carry C.to bring D.bring 13. It _____________ us two hours’ walk to get to our school. A.take B.takes C.spend D.paid 14. My little sister is so tired, she can hardly walk, ____________? A.does she B.can she C.doesn’t she D.can’t she 15. __________ Yellow River is the second longest river is our country. A./ B.The C.An D.A 16. ---Do you want to _____ at the meeting. ---No, I have nothing to ______________. A.say, speak B.tell, talk C.say, say D.speak, say 17.---You need something to drink, don’t you? --- ________________________________. A.Not at all B.I needn’t C.No, please D.Yes, please 18. She asked me _____ he could dance or sing. A.if B.what C.whether D.that 19. ---Aren’t you Mary’s sister? ---_____________________ I’m her aunt. A.Yes, I am B.No, I’m not C.Yes, I’m not D.No, I am 20. _____________, no man has travelled farther20 than the moon. A.To now B.To far C.So far D.Till now 二. 用所給動詞的適當形式填空1. Class 3 won the football match and our class _____ by them. (beat) 2. By last Friday the students _____ (learn)all their new lessons. 3. He will be a worker after he _____ (finish) middle school. 4. I felt like ______ (have) a rest after lunch. 5. Is there another way of ______ (answer) the question? 6. I’ll tell him the news that our class ______ (win). 7. Jim made us ______ (agree) with him. 8. The teacher _____ (give) us a lesson when Tom walked into the room. 9. Someone saw him ______ (fall) off the horse just now. 10. Look! A group of policemen ______ (run) into that room. 三. 改寫句子 1. None of the doctors knows about the matter. _____ _____ know about the matter. 2. Tom is taller than John. Jonh is not _____ _______ _____ Tom. 3. The jacket cost so little that he bought it. The jacket _____ ______ _____ for him to buy. 4. Jim had a good journey21 home. Jim ______ _____ very much ____ ____ _______ home. 5. I didn’t finish my work in time because my pen was broken22. The ____ pen stopped ______ _____ finishing my work in time. 四. 完形填空Hundreds of years ago, life was 1 than 2 today. People didn’t have modern machines. There 3 modern medicine, 4 . Life today 5 new problems. One of the biggest is pollution (污染). Water pollution has 6 our rivers and lakes dirty. It kills our fish and affects23 (影響) our drinking water. Noise pollution makes us 7 louder and 8 . Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution. It affects 9 living thing in the world. Cars, planes and factories all pollute24 (污染) our air every day. Sometimes the pollution is so 10 that it is like a quilt25 (被狀物)over a city. This kind of quilt is called smog26. (煙霧) 1. A.more hard B.more harder C.much harder D.much more harder 2. A.they are B.they were C.it was D.it is 3. A.were not B.was no C.were D.was 4. A.either B.too C.also D.neither 5. A.bring B.have C.have got D.has brought 6. A.made B.let C.taken D.changed 7. A.say B.talk C.tell D.spoke27 8. A.feel happy more happily B.get angry much more easier C.get angry much easier D.feel and more slowly 9. A.most B.all C.one D.every 10. A.thin B.thick C.hard D.light 五. 閱讀理解(A) Since the beginning of time, man has invented many interesting things. Some of these inventions, like numbers and the radio have certainly changed history. Since 1946, one of the most important inventions has been the computer. It will change all our lives. The first computer was built at Harvard University(哈佛大學) in 1944. it was as large as a room and quite difficult and slow to operate(運行). But since the invention of the silicon28 chip29(硅片), computer have become smaller, easier to use, and faster to operate. Some computers are as small as television sets. Some computers can be made smaller than a book. And computers are getting smaller all the time. There are several reasons(原因) why computer is useful to us. First it can store(儲藏) very, very large amount(數量) of information(信息). Second, the computer can operate very quickly. Third, modern computer can be built into other kinds of machines, like radios, cars, and planes. They can do a lot of work for us. Soon, almost everyone, either at home or at work, will use some kind of computer. The lives of all of us will be changed by this invention.判斷下列句子是否符合短文內容。符合的用“A”表示;不符合的用“B”表示.1. According30 to(根據)this passage, many inventions have changed history and people’s life.2. The first computer was built in the middle of the 19th century(世紀).3. A modern computer can be made smaller than silicon chip.4. The computer has been made much better since the invention of the silicon chip.5. The computer is useful because it can store lots of information, it can operate very quickly and can be built into other machines. (B)Joe Biggs was a butcher31 (屠夫). His shop was in a village in one of the most beautiful parts of southern England . He worked in it for many years while his father was there. Then, when his father reached the age of 65, he stopped working in the shop. Joe was alone in it, so he had to work harder. Joe worked five and a half day a week. His shop shut at one o’clock on Thursday, and it was shut the whole of Sunday. Saturdays were the busiest days. Joe had a big refrigerator (冰箱)in his shop, but he tried not to buy too much meat at a time. One Thursday a woman came into the shop at five minutes to one. “I’m sorry I’m very late,” she said, “but some people have just telephoned to say that they are going to come to dinner tonight, and I need some more meat.” Joe only had one piece of good meat in the shop. He had sold all the rest earlier in the day. He took the piece out and said to the woman. “This is £7.15.” “That piece is too small,” the woman answered. “Haven’t you got anything bigger?” Joe went into the room behind his shop, opened the refrigerator, put the piece of meat into it, took it out again and shut the door of the refrigerator with a lot of noise. Then he brought the piece of meat back to the woman and said, “This piece is bigger and more expensive. It’s £9.30.” “Good,” the woman answered with a smile. “give me both of them, please.” 6. Joe worked alone in the shop ________. A.on Saturdays B.on Thursdays C.afer his father died D.after his father stopped working 7. Joe sold meat in his shop _______. A.on Thursday afternoons B.on Sundays C.on Fridays D.every day 8. One day a woman came to his shop ________. A.at 1:55, Tuesday B.at 1:05 C.to say sorry to him D.because someone had suddenly telephoned her 9. Which of the following is true? A.People bought all the meat from him. B.The woman didn’t want the expensive piece of meat. C.Joe brought the woman a different piece. D.The woman wanted to buy the two pieces of meat together. 10.Joe only had one piece of good meat because ______. A.Joe’s refrigerator had broken. B.he tried not to buy too much meat at a time. C.he knew that the meat would go bad (變質). D.he had no money to buy more. (C) If you go into the forest with friends, stay with them always. If you don’t, you may get lost. If you really get lost, this is what you should do. Sit down and stay where you are. Don’t try to find your friends.Let them find you by staying in one place. There is another way to help your friends or other nearby people to find you. Give them a signal32 by shouting or whistling33 (打口哨) three times. Stop. Then shout or whistle34 three times. Any signal given three times is a call for help. Keep up the shouting or whistling always three times together. When people hear you, they will know that you are not just making noise for fun. They will let you know that they have heard your signal. They will give two shouts, two whistles35 or two gun shots36 (槍聲). When someone gives a signal, it is an answer to a call for help. If you don’t think that you will get help before night comes, try to make a little house — cover up the holes with branches38(樹枝) with lots of leaves. Make yourself a soft bed with leaves and grass. What should you do if you get hungry or need drinking water? You would have to leave your little branch37 house to look for a river. Don’t just walk away. Pick off small branches and drop them as you walk so that you can find your way back. The most important thing to do when you are lost is — stay in one place. 11. If you got lost in the forest,you should _______. A.stay where you are and give a signal three times B.walk around the forest and shouted so that your friends might hear you C.try to find your friends as soon as possible D.try to get out of the forest and shouted for help 12. If you want to let people believe that you are not just making noise for fun you should ________. A.shout that you are lost B.keep up the shouting or whistling C.shout at the top of your voice D.shout or whistle once in a while 13. When you hear _______ shouts or whistles or gun shots,you know that _______. A.two; people will soon come to help you B.three; some one is asking for help C.three; people will soon come to help you D.two; someone is asking for help 14. When you are lost in the forest, but you want to leave your place to get water, you should ________. A.just go to the river B.find a bowl or a glass, and then go C.make a fire so that you might make yourself some hot tea D.leave marks (標志)as you go to the river so that you can find your way back 15. This story mainly39 (主要地)tells you _______. A.that when someone gives a signal always three times, it is a call for help B.What you should do if you get lost in the forest C.that when any signal given twice means40 an answer to a call for help D. What you should do if you get lost in the street六. 書面表達 根據提示寫一篇有關你今天活動的日記 要求:1、字數在60—80個單詞左右。 2、日期、天氣狀況等放在日記行文格式上。 3、今天是2005年3月3日,星期六早晨6點45分起床,匆忙去上學, 學校停課。然后和幾個同學去公園野餐,乘車回家。9點睡覺。 初三年級(下)【練習答案】一. 1.D 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.B 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.D 11.C 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.B 16.D 17.D 18.C 19.B 20.C 二.1. was beaten 2. had learnt/learned 3. finishes 4. having 5. answering 6. has/have won 7. agree 8. was giving 9. fall 10. are running 三. 1.No doctors 2. so/as tall as 3. was cheap enough 4. enjoyed himself; when he travelled 5.broken; me from 四. 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.D 6.A 7.B 8.C 9.D 10.B 五. 1.A 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.C 8.D 9.D 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.A 14.D 15.B 六. Saturday Mar3,2005 Sunny Today is Saturday. I got up at 6:45 this morning. I had a quick breakfast and then went to school in a hurry, but we don’t have classes on Saturday. Then I telephoned some classmates and asked them to have a picnic. They were very pleased. We got to the park and enjoyed ourselves. At about 5:00 in the afternoon, we went home by bus. I was too tired, so I’ll go to bed at 9:00.
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